Toolbox | Trousse

Number | Le nombre

In French, all nouns are either singular or plural. When a noun refers to more than one person, place, thing, idea, or quality, it must be made plural.

Note: Throughout this site, an ‘s.’ is used to designate the singular form of words and a ‘p.’ is used to designate the plural form of words.

le singulier (s.) ou le pluriel (p.) | singular or plural

The number of a word (singular or plural) can relate to five parts of speech: the nouns, the determiners/articles, the adjectives, the pronouns and the verbs.

For example | Par exemple:

ma pomme mes pommes | my apples

cette pomme ces pommes | these/those apples

la pomme les pommes | the apples

When a noun changes to the plural, its respective determiner/article must also change to the plural form.


la pomme rouge les pommes rouges | the red apples

When a noun changes to the plural, its respective adjective must also change to the plural form.


Elle (la pomme rouge) est juteuse. Elles (les pommes rouges) sont juteuses. |

They (the red apples) are juicy.

The pronouns must agree in number with the nouns or the noun phrases they substitute.


La pomme tombe dans le panier. Les pommes tombent dans les paniers. |

The apples fall into the baskets.

The conjugated verb must also agree in number with its subject.

General Rules | Les règles générales

Please click on the text in the examples below to hear an audio sample.

In general, most nouns simply add an 's' to form the plural.

la vidéo les vidéos | the videos/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/la_video.mp3
l’amie les amies | the friends/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/lamie.mp3
le hamburger les hamburgers | the hamburgers/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/le_hamburger.mp3
la classe les classes | the classes/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/la_classe.mp3
l’équipe les équipes | the teams/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/lequipe.mp3

Some exceptions and irregularities |Certaines exceptions et des irrégularités

In general, nouns ending in 'al' change to 'aux'.

un animal des animaux | some animals/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/un_animal.mp3
un journal des journaux | some newspapers/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/un_journal.mp3
un cheval des chevaux | some horses/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/un_cheval.mp3
un hôpital des hôpitaux | some hospitals/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/un_hopital.mp3
un total des totaux | some totals/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/un_total.mp3
Some Exceptions: add an 's'

un bal des bals | some bals/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/un_bal.mp3
un cal des cals | some calluses/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/un_cal.mp3
un carnaval des carnavals | some carnivals/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/un_canaval.mp3
un chacal des chacals | some jackals/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/un_chacal.mp3
un festival des festivals | some festivals/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/un_festival.mp3
un récital des récitals | some recitals/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/un_recital.mp3
un régal des régals | some feasts/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/un_regal.mp3

In general, nouns ending in 'ail' add an 's' to form the plural.

l’épouvantail les épouvantails | the scarecrows/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/lepouvantail.mp3
un rail des rails | some rails/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/un_rail.mp3
le chandail les chandails | the sweaters/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/le_chandail.mp3
un détail des détails | some details/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/un_detail.mp3
Exceptions: change to 'aux'

l’aspirail les aspiraux | the air holes/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/laspirail.mp3
le bail les baux | the leases/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/le_bail.mp3
le corail les coraux | the corals/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/le_corail.mp3
l’émail les émaux | the enamels/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/lemail.mp3
le fermail les fermaux | the clasps/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/le_fremail.mp3
le gemmail les gemmaux | the stained-glasses/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/le_gemmail.mp3
le soupirail les soupiraux | the basement windows/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/le_soupirail.mp3
le travail les travaux | the works/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/le_travail.mp3
le vantail les vantaux | the door panels/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/le_vantail.mp3
le ventail les ventaux | the helmet visors/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/le_ventail-2.mp3
le vitrail les vitraux |the stained-glass windows/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/le_vitrail.mp3

In general, nouns ending in 'au', 'eau' and 'eu' add an 'x' to form the plural.

un noyau des noyaux | some pits/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/un_noyau.mp3
un gâteau des gâteaux | some cakes/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/un_gateau.mp3
une eau des eaux | some bodies of water/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/une_eau.mp3
un jeu des jeux | some games/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/un_jeu.mp3
un vœu des vœux | some vows/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/un_voeu.mp3
Some Exceptions: add an 's'

un landau des landaus |some baby carriages/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/un_landau.mp3
un sarrau des sarraus |some smocks/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/un_sarrau.mp3
un pneu des pneus | some tires/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/un_pneu.mp3
un bleu des bleus | some bruises/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/un_bleu.mp3
un émeu des émeus | some emus/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/un_emeu.mp3
un lieu (poisson) des lieus |some pollocks/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/un_lieu_poisson.mp3

In general, nouns ending in 'ou' add an 's' to form the plural.

le caribou les caribous | the caribou/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/le_caribou.mp3
le clou les clous | the nails/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/le_clou.mp3
le kangourou les kangourous | the kangaroos/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/le_kangourou.mp3
le minou les minous | the pussycats/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/le_minou.mp3
le sou les sous | the pennies/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/le_sou.mp3
le cou les cous | the necks/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/le_cou.mp3
Exceptions: add an 'x'

le genou les genoux | the knees/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/le_genou.mp3
le caillou les cailloux | the pebbles/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/le_caillou.mp3
le bijou les bijoux | the jewels/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/le_bijou.mp3
le hibou les hiboux | the owls/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/le_hibou.mp3
le chou les choux | the cabbages/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/le_chou.mp3
le pou les poux | the lice/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/le_pou.mp3
le joujou les joujoux | the toys/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/le_joujou.mp3

Words that already end in 's', 'x' or 'z' do not change in the plural.

le fils les fils | the sons/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/le_fils.mp3
un corps des corps | some bodies/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/un_corps.mp3
le prix les prix | the prices/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/le_prix.mp3
une croix des croix | some crosses/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/une_croix.mp3
le nez les nez | the noses/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/le_nez.mp3
un gaz des gaz | some gases/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/un_gaz.mp3

Some irregular plurals include:

un œil des yeux | some eyes/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/un_oeil.mp3
un ciel des ciels | some skies/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/un_ciel.mp3
le ciel les cieux | the heavens/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/le_ciel.mp3
un monsieur des messieurs | some gentlemen/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/un_monsieur.mp3
une madame des mesdames | some ladies/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/une_madame.mp3
une mademoiselle des mesdemoiselles |some misses/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/une_mademoiselle.mp3

Mathematical symbols and abbreviated units do not change in the plural.

un km des km | some km/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/un_km.mp3
1 kg 4kg | 4 kg/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/1_kg.mp3
1 m 12 m | 12 m/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/1m.mp3
1 h 3 h 10 | 3:10 p.m./toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/1h.mp3
1 h 1 min 1 s 10 h 25 min 42 s | 10:25:42/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/1h_1min_1s.mp3

un kilo des kilos | some kilos/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/un_kilo.mp3
un kilogramme des kilogrammes | some kilograms/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/un_kilogramme.mp3
un mètre douze mètres | twelve metres/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/un_metre.mp3
une heure trois heures | three o’clock/toolbox/gender_number/number/audio/une_heure.mp3
1 heure 1 minute 1 seconde
10 heure
s 25 minutes 42 secondes |10 h 25 min 42 s