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Writing a Bibliography | Écrire une bibliographie

APA Format | Au format APA


The American Psychological Association (APA) format is most commonly used to cite sources in the social sciences.

Websites or Webpages:
Author’s last name, first and middle initial. (Date of publication). Title of website. Repéré à URL
* When citing internet sources, refer to the specific website document.  If a document is undated, use “n.d.” (for no date) immediately after the document title. 
Break a lengthy URL that goes to another line after a slash or before a period.  Continually check your references to online documents.
There is no period following a URL

➢    Example for an entire Website/Webpage:
Musée virtuel du Canada. (2009). Repéré à http://www.museevirtuel-virtualmuseum.ca/index-fra.jsp

Books:
Author’s last name, first and middle initial. (Publication date). Book title. Additional information. City of publication : Publishing company.

➢    Example:
Watt, M. (2011). Enfin, te voilà?  Toronto : Éditions Scholastic.

e-Books:
Author’s last name, first and middle initial. (Publication date). Book title. Provide the Digital Object Identifier (doi number) or Repéré à URL
* Only use a URL if the doi is not available.

➢    Example:
Verne, J. Vingt mille lieues sous les mers. Repéré à http://beq.ebooksgratuits.com/vents/verne.htm

Encyclopedia and Dictionary:
Author’s last name, first and middle initial. (Publication date). Title of entry. Dans Editor. Title of dictionary/encyclopedia. (Volume, p. for page number). City of publication : Publishing company.

➢    Example:
Morue. (1983). Encyclopédie Grolier. Le livre des connaissances. (Vol. 9, p. 407). Montréal : Grolier ltée.

Griffon. Larousse des débutants. (p. 287). Paris : Larousse.

Dictionary/Encyclopedia (Online):
Author’s last name, first and middle initial. (Publication date). Title of entry. In Editor. Title of dictionary/encyclopedia. (Volume, p. for page number). Doi or Repéré à URL

➢    Example for Dictionary (Online):
 Griffon. (n.d.) Le Dictionnaire. Repéré à http://www.le-dictionnaire.com/

➢    Example for Encyclopedia (Online):
Whitaker, R. Pierre Elliott Trudeau.  L’Encyclopédie Canadienne. Repéré à http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=F1ARTF0008141

Magazine and Newspaper Articles:
Author’s last name, first and middle initial. (Publication date - year, month day). Article title. Periodical title, volume number (issue number if available), inclusive pages.

➢    Example:
Fontaine, F. &  Benazdia, N. (2011, janvier). À quoi servent les frontières? GEO Ado,  95, p. 16.

➢    Example:
Castonguay, N. (2011, mars 2). Qu’est-ce qu’on mange pour souper?
Le Voyageur, 43 (39), p. 23.

Articles, Magazines, Newspapers, Blogs and Similar Work (online):

e-Magazine Articles:
Author’s last name, first and middle initial. (Publication date - year, month day). Article title. Title of magazine, volume number (issue number if available), inclusive pages. Repéré à URL

➢    Example:
Cler, E. (2010, nov. 7). Des cités sous la mer. Québec Science. Repéré à http://www.quebecscience.qc.ca/Des-cites-sous-la-mer

e-Newspaper Articles:
Author’s last name, first and middle initial. (Publication date -  year, month day). Article title. Title of newspaper, page number(s). Repéré à URL

➢    Example:
Chalifour, A. (2011, mars 6). Des symboles de la culture haïtienne à l'honneur. L’express. Repéré à http://www.lexpress.to/archives/6063/

Online document:
Author’s last name, first and middle initial. (Date of publication – year). Title of work. Dans Stemp, M. (n.d.). Histoire d’un siècle. Dans Antoine de Saint-Exupéry. Antoine de Saint-Exupéry.  Repéré à http://www.antoinedesaintexupery.com/

Nero, R. W. (1991). Le Geai bleu. Faune et Flore du pays. Repéré à http://www.hww.ca/hww2_f.asp?id=30

Online periodical:
Author’s last name, first and middle initial. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number. Repéré à full URL

* Do not enclose the title in quotation marks.  Put a period after the title. If a periodical includes a volume number, italicize it and then give the page range without “p.”  If the periodical does not use volume numbers, as in newspapers, use p. or pp. for page numbers.

➢    Example:
Charron, C. Y. (1978). Le tambour magique, un instrument autrefois utile pour la quête d'un conjoint. Études Inuit Studies, 2 (1). Repéré à http://www.fss.ulaval.ca/etudes-inuit-studies/v02(1)resum.html

Blogs:
Author’s last name, first and middle initial. (Date of publication – year, month day). Title of blog entry (not italicized). Disponible sur URL or Archivé à URL

* Titles for items in online communities (e.g., blogs, newsgroups, forums) are not italicized.
* If the author's name is not available, provide the screen name. Add identifiers like post or message numbers, if available, in brackets.

➢    Example:
Pelletier, C. (2011, fév. 11). Musiciens sympathiques, performances magnifiques: La Slague présente Choi au violoncelle, Song au piano. Disponible sur http://www.laslague.ca/category/blog/feed/

Interview (personal):
For APA, do not cite personal communications (e.g., face-to-face interviews, telephone or e-mail interviews) in the reference list, since they are not archived, recoverable sources.

Music/Songs/Lyrics:
Author’s last name, first and middle initial. (Publication date). Song title [Recorded by]. Sur Title of album [Medium of recording] Location of record label: Record label.

➢    Example:
Broccoli, Annie. (2008). Le break dance intergalactic. Sur Broco Show [CD] Montréal, Québec : Les Productions Benannah Inc.

Music/Songs/Lyrics (online):
Author’s last name, first and middle initial. (Year of copyright). Song title. Title of album. Repéré à ULR

➢    Example:
Jacquot. (n.d.) Jouez au hockey. Rigolons. Repéré à http://youtube.com/watch?v=0GAQM7-7WSE