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Writing a Bibliography | Écrire une bibliographie

How to write a bibliography:

A bibliography is an alphabetical list of materials (e.g., books, magazines, internet sources) used in the preparation/research of an assignment.  It is written to acknowledge and give credit to sources of websites, words, ideas, diagrams, illustrations, quotations or any other resource summarized or paraphrased. A bibliography offers additional information to the reader should the reader wish to pursue the topic and it is also used to prove that the work has not has not been plagiarized.

What should generally be included in a bibliography?


Author (the following order is to be followed depending on the information available)

  • Last name, first name
  • Last name, first and middle initial
  • Last name, initial and middle name
  • Last name, initials
  • Last name, first and middle names, Jr. or Sr. designation
  • Last name, first name, I, II, III



  • If the title on the front cover of the book is different from the title page, use the title on the title page
  • Underline the title and subtitle of the book, magazine, journal, newspaper
  • Do not underline the title and subtitle of an article in a magazine, journal, newspaper, or encyclopedia
  • Put the title and subtitle between quotation marks when a source is within a source

Place of publication (for books only)

  • Use the name of a city or town and add the abbreviated state or province
  • Use “n.p.” to indicate that no place of publication is given.

Publisher (for books only)

  • Be sure to write down the publisher’s name, NOT the printing company name
  • If a book has more than one publisher, list the publishers in the order given and add the corresponding year of publication
  • If you cannot find the name of the publisher anywhere in the book, use “n.p.” to indicate there is “No Publisher” listed

Date of publication for a book

  • Use the copyright year as the date of publication
  • Use the most recent copyright year if two or more years are listed
  • Remember to use the date of publication with the date of printing
  • If you cannot find a publication date anywhere in the book, use “n.d.” to indicate there is “No Date” listed for this publication

Medium of publication

  • Print
  • Web
  • CD, Blog
  • Email
  • Telephone
  • Video clips