Look and Listen... | Regardez et écoutez ...


Citation Guide | Comment citer

In-Text Citations:

Parenthetical citations or in–text citations are brief, partial references placed in parentheses and inserted within the text of a paper or a piece of work, directly following any source material that is quoted, paraphrased, or summarized.


In-text citations acknowledge sources within the text of a paper/work and provide references indicating exactly where in the sources the information was found. Parenthetical citations allow the reader to check the validity of statements and help the reader locate the sources used.


All in-text citations or parenthetical citations refer and lead the reader to specific sources listed in the section entitled the Works Cited or References or Bibliography. This section, which may only be one page, is located at the end of a paper or piece of work.


What are Works Cited, References and a Bibliography?

Works Cited, References and Bibliography are individual alphabetical listings of works mentioned or referenced in researching a paper.


A Works Cited page is usually used when citing sources using Modern Language Association (MLA) format.


A References page is used when citing sources using American Psychological Association (APA) style.

Works Cited and References list sources that have actually been cited in the paper/work.


A Bibliography lists all of the materials or sources that have been consulted (cited or not) in preparing the paper/work.


Formatting Short Quotations and Block Quotations

Short quotations (no more than 4 lines):

Incorporate quotations that are 4 lines or fewer into the flow of the main body of the text. Place the quoted words within ‘French’ double quotation marks « », leaving spaces on either side of the quotation marks. The parenthetical citation is positioned after the quote.


  • Example :

Les auteurs décrivent les péripéties et les exploits d’Étienne Brûlé. Ils racontent les conditions horribles qu’il subit en Nouvelle France. Etienne avoue que « La vie est cruelle et difficile dans ce pays. » (Laroque & Sauvé, 2011, p. 49).

The parenthetical citation should be placed before the punctuation mark that concludes the sentence, clause, or phrase that contains the cited material.


Use the character sequence ‘[…]’ (italicized open square brackets - three spaced periods/ellipsis- closed square bracket) within quotations to indicate that words, phrases, or sentences have been omitted. Add a fourth period [….] if the omission includes the end of a sentence in the original quoted text.


Block quotations

Modern Language Association (MLA) Format: more than 4 lines or

American Psychological Association (APA) Format: more than 40 words:

If a quotation is more than four lines (MLA) or forty words (APA), begin the quotation double-spaced on a new line that is indented by 2.5 cm. The quotation should be double-spaced. Block quotations do not require double quotation marks. Place the parenthetical citation outside the final punctuation of the quoted passage.


  • Example :

L’auteur décrit les hivers dans le Nord de l'Ontario avec précision et exactitude:

Même les gens qui ont vécu dans le Nord de l’Ontario toute leur vie sont surpris chaque année de la rigueur de l’hiver. Du début de décembre à la fin de mars, les vagues de froid se succèdent presque sans interruption. Au sommet de la vague, le thermomètre marque 400 ou 450 sous zéro. Au creux de la vague, le mercure remonte à moins 100 ou moins 220 pendant une journée ou deux puis tout recommence. (Germain, 2007, p.45)

Short and Block Quotations | Les citations courtes et longues


MLA: Citations of 4 lines or less | Les citations de 4 lignes et moins

APA : Citations of 40 words or less | Les citations de 40 mots et moins


MLA: Citations of more than 4 lines | Les citations de plus de 4 lignes

APA: Citations of more than 40 words | Les citations de plus de 40 mots

  • incorporated in the text | incorporées au texte

  • double-spaced like the rest of the work | à double

interligne comme le restant du travail

  • enclosed in quotation marks | placées entre guillemets

  • placed, as a paragraph,away from the main text | en retrait du texte

  • double-spaced from the text | détachées du texte par un interligne double

  • indented on the left and right sides | en retrait à la gauche et à la droite

  • single-spaced | à simple interligne

  • no quotation marks | sans guillemets