# The Five Strands | Les cinq domaines d’étude

## Strands in the Mathematics Curriculum | Les cinq domaines d’étude du curriculum de mathématique

The Ontario Curriculum Grades 1-8: Mathematics details the knowledge and skills that students are expected to develop in Mathematics at each grade level.

A strand | un domaine d’étude is a major area of knowledge and skills into which the curriculum for mathematics is organized. Overall expectations and specific expectations in mathematics are organized into five strands. The five strands for mathematics in Grades 1 to 8 are:

Number Sense and Numeration | Numération et sens du nombre

Measurement | Mesure

Geometry and Spatial Sense | Géométrie et sens de l’espace

Patterning and Algebra | Modélisation et algèbre

Data Management and Probability | Traitement des données et probabilité Number Sense and Numeration | Numération et sens du nombre

Number sense refers to a general understanding of numbers and operations. Numbers are used in describing quantities, in counting, and in carrying out numerical operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Understanding numbers and how they relate to each other, and knowing how to combine them to solve problems, help students develop understanding in all areas of mathematics.

Highlights of student learning across grades 1-8 include:

• decomposing, composing, representing and ordering numbers;

• representing money amounts;

• developing the concept of place value;

• investigating, representing, comparing and ordering fractions;

• using exponential notation;

• adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing (numbers, decimals, fractions and integers);

• applying order of operations (BEDMAS:B-brackets, E-exponents [powers, roots], DM- divide or multiply [left to right], AS-add or subtract [left to right]) ;

• relating numbers, fractions, decimals, and percents;

• representing proportional relationships (fractions, decimals, percents, unit rates and ratios). Measurement | Mesure

Measurement involves an understanding of several concepts: the selection of appropriate measurement units in various situations; the quantity of measurement units required in various situations; the measurement processes; the use of measurement tools, and the use of estimation in measurement. Measurements are used to determine the height, length, and width of objects, as well as the perimeter, area and the volume.

Highlights of student learning across grades 1-8 include:

• measuring time, temperature, length, mass, capacity, distance, perimetre, area, volume using non-standard and standard units;

• comparing the length, mass and capacity of objects using non-standard and standard units;

• measuring and converting metric units (meter, litre, and kilogram);

• developing and applying formula for the perimeter, surface-area, area and volume of shapes;

• developing, determining and applying perimeter relationships, surface-area relationships, area relationships and volume relationships for various shapes. Geometry and Spatial Sense | Géométrie et sens de l’espace

Geometry is about shapes and their properties. Spatial sense is the intuitive awareness of one’s surroundings and the objects in them. This strand involves identifying and describing shapes, sizes, positions, direction, and movement. Students develop their spatial sense by visualizing, drawing, and comparing shapes and figures in various ways.

Highlights of student learning across grades 1-8 include:

• sorting, classifying, comparing and distinguishing shapes and figures by geometric properties;

• decomposing, composing and constructing various shapes and figures;

• investigating and analysing relationships among shapes and figures;

• relating the numbers of faces, edges, and vertices (objects, shapes, and figures);

• identifying and measuring angles;

• performing and describing transformations (reflections, translations, rotations, tessellations, and dilatations);

• plotting points on a coordinate plane. Patterning and Algebra | Modélisation et algèbre

Patterning involves analyzing and making predictions from patterns. Students identify patterns in shapes, designs, and movement, as well as in sets of numbers. They use concrete materials, graphs, tables, and descriptions to create patterns and to recognize relationships. The second focus of this strand is the concept of equality. Algebra involves using numbers and variables to represent equal quantities and students also develop techniques for solving equations.

Highlights of student learning across grades 1-8 include:

• creating, generating and representing various patterns (repeating, growing, shrinking, relational, linear, and algebraic);

• identifying the attributes of patterns (colour, shape, and size)

• describing pattern rules;

• determining missing numbers in equations;

• investigating variables and solving equations;

• using commutative, associative, and distributive properties to facilitate computation;

• using graphs, algebraic expressions and equations to represent patterns; Data Management and Probability | Traitement des données et probabilité

Data Management involves learning about different ways to gather, organize, display, and interpret data. Students explore probability by conducting probability experiments and using probability models to simulate situations.

Highlights of student learning across grades 1-8 include:

• collecting, organizing and displaying data using a variety of graphical representations;

• sampling data;
• reading and comparing sets of data;
• identifying bias in data;
• making inferences based on data;
• using measures of central tendency (mean, median and mode);
• comparing experimental and theoretical probabilities;
• investigating, describing, representing and calculating the probability of events or probability experiments;
• predicting the frequency of outcomes of probability experiments.